Day 2 :
Founder, Clinical Director and Counsellor in Private Practice at ALW Emotional Health Services
Statement of the Problem: How do different generational and family systems/dynamics play into/contribute to the cycle of abuse often ongoing and repetitive within generational and family relationships. Does the Power and Control interpersonal characteristic of Abuse including domestic, physical, sexual, financial and emotional abuse hold a long lasting and negative impact on one’s overall Emotional Health and Personal Well-Being? Further, are the resources available: including programming, the cross intersection of social systems and counselling frameworks currently help or hinder? Are resources available to provide both intervention and prevention awareness and education, programs for individuals, couples, families, children, and youth to further prevent the abuse cycle from repeating itself within families and relationships? The ultimate Goal being to break the cycle of abuse and create long lasting healthy, happy, positive energy relationships that deeply fulfill and enrich the personal and professional lives of all parties involved. Looking at all types of Abuse from an Intersectionality framework including: Domestic, Sexual, Physical, Emotional and Financial Abuse/ Assaults, the Impact of Abuse and the Long Lasting Effects of growing up in/ living with Abuse and in Abusive Relationships has on an Individual's Emotional Health and Personal and Professional State of Well-Being.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Looking deep into and understanding/ beginning to understand The Impacts , Negative Effects and Trauma of the Abuse Cycle and the long lasting effects ultimately on an individual’s, couples and families Emotional Health and Well-being using a Feminist Analysis, and Intersectionality Approach/Framework. Primary focus is placed on family systems as a whole unit and family dynamics including and acknowledging through information gathering the family history, children’s upbringing, and parenting styles. Then acknowledging and being able to recognize and accept how these roles and systems effect and have an impact (positive or negative) on children’s, youth, and adolescents relationship choices, intimate partner relationship patterns and relationships with others outside of intimate partner relationships: i.e.: friendships, coworker relationships, etc.
Findings: All types of Abuse contribute to and have a significant impact on one’s individual Emotional Health and Personal state of Well Being. Family Systems, Family Dynamics, generational ‘baggage’ upbringing and deep rooted patterns of family knowledge, parenting styles, and learned vs inherited behaviour all play a huge role in both the intervention and prevention models of abuse and breaking the cycle of abuse within families and intimate partner relationships to further repeat the wheel of power and control behavioural traits when moving forward in new relationships and partnerships.
Conclusion & Significance: From a Neural Network Therapy(how patterns in the brains are formed to create patterns of behaviour and relations with others- See Canadian Family Health Collective.com) Counselling Approach and Primarily Emotional Health based focus/standpoint, it is imperative to look at the family system as a whole and to acknowledge and recognize from a neuroscience field how patterns of behaviour are formed, created and ultimately and ‘stick’ within our brains unwanted or wanted create our relationships with others based on past life experiences and events (whether perceived by one as positive or negative experience). For an individual’s Emotional Health and Personal Well-being it is both imperative and crucial that an individual acknowledges, recognizes and becomes personally aware of the warning and danger signs of abuse. Including but not limited to abuse behaviours, characteristic traits of abusers, why people abuse/ put down/ control/ ‘need’ others and how patterns of abuse are formed within one's subconscious mind over the developmental human lifespan from infancy to child, to adolescent and teens years to adulthood through generational baggage, family history and upbringing. Abuse stems from deep rooted fears and insecurities within an abusers mindset and interpersonal traits often from learnt behaviour/ passed down behaviours of what is the ‘norm’/ accepted, expected within family systems and family relationship roles with others within the family system and family dynamics. All types of abuse are highly correlated/ intersected. However, each in their own way hold their own challenges, complexities, lasting effects within the mind and body and can create a Traumatic response ultimately negatively affecting ones individuals Emotional Health and Well Being. There are many Grey areas to abuse and each case should be treated with care, exceptions and on an individual basis with thorough knowledge, understanding, informative screening of the family history and background information leading up to the relationships and experiences of abuse and assault. ABCS of Behavioural Motivation: The Antecedent followed by the Behaviour followed by the Consequence- repeats itself depending if the consequence was positively or negatively reinforced or whether it was encouraged/ positively or negatively enabled by others.
Next Steps: Design, Create and Implement Programming Moving Forward with a focus on preventive model framework instead of interventive based programming with the focus on young children, youth and school aged relationships: promoting positive, healthy energy, give and take reciprocal relationships. Programming focusing needs to be on young boys and young girls roughly before aged 12 in a fun, interactive way to prevent the cycle of abuse and domestic, sexual, physical and emotional abuse in relationships.
Professor, Department of Psychiatry, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Professor WK Tang was appointed to professor in the Department of Psychiatry, the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 2011. His main research areas are Addictions and Neuropsychiatry in Stroke. Professor Tang has published over 100 papers in renowned journals, and has also contributed to the peer review of 40 journals. He has secured over 20 major competitive research grants. He has served the editorial boards of five scientific journals. He was also a recipient of the Young Researcher Award in 2007, awarded by the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Background and objectives: To identify the risk factors, frequency, symptoms, pathomechanism and treatment of IIP through a comprehensive literature review.
Design: Systematic literature review.
Setting: Not applicable.
Participants: Not applicable.
Main outcome measures: The first author screened the titles and abstracts of all 288 records. One hundred and two studies that do not meet the eligibility criteria. Full-text versions of the remaining 186 articles (151 original articles and 35 review articles) were then screened by the principal investigator. After this screening, 14 original articles and 3 review articles were excluded, leaving 169 articles (137 original articles and 32 review articles).
Results: Psychotic symptoms are common amongst Ice users, the frequency of any psychotic symptoms ranged from 16% to 81%, with a median of 78%. The prevalence of IIP ranged from 24% to 76%, the median of prevalence of IIP is 42%. The most frequently reported symptoms of IIP are delusions of persecution and auditory hallucinations.
Conclusions: Long-term studies that track the Ice users for a decade or more are necessary to collect sufficient evidence to understand the relationship between Ice use and the development of IIP.
Professor and Associate Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Macau, China
Keynote: Understanding the Links among Alcohol Use, Aggression and Violence among Chinese Adolescents
Time : 00:00
Spencer D. Li is Professor and Associate Dean in the Faculty of Social Sciences at University of Macau. His research interests include juvenile delinquency, substance abuse, child development, and sociology of religion. Dr. Li has served as principal investigator on a number of publicly and privately funded projects related to juvenile delinquency, substance abuse, and corrections, including grants from the U.S. National Institutes of Health, U.S. Administration for Children and Families, and Social Welfare Bureau of Macao Special Administrative Region Government. His publications have appeared in several major academic journals, including Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Justice Quarterly, Evaluation Review, and Journal of Early Adolescence.
Statement of the Problem: Past research has shown that alcohol use, aggression and violence are some of the most commonly observed delinquent activities among Chinese adolescents. Despite their high prevalence, the relationship among the three types of delinquent behavior in Chinese adolescent population has not been well understood. It is not known if alcohol use is similarly related to aggression and violence, or if the relation varies by type of behavior and level of use. This study aims to answer these questions. This study first identifies the risk profiles of Chinese adolescents who used alcohol and perpetrated aggressive or violent acts. It then assesses the interrelationship among alcohol use, aggression, and violence.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Survey data are collected from a multi-stage, stratified probability sample of 3,407 students who attended secondary schools in one of the largest metropolitan areas in China. Regression analyses are conducted to test the relationships among alcohol use, aggression, and violence. It is posited that the impact of alcohol use on aggression and violence is resulted from an impaired capacity to attend to the instigative and inhibitory cues in situations conducive to aggression or violence.
Findings: Frequency of alcohol use is positively related to both aggressive and violent behavior although it is more strongly related to violence. Frequency of heavy drinking, which is the form of alcohol use known to reduce situational inhibition of violent impulses, predicts violence but not aggression.
Conclusion & Significance: Alcohol use appears to increase aggressive and violent behaviors among Chinese adolescents. Policy aimed at reducing adolescent involvement in aggression and violence should consider limiting underage drinking through promoting prevention programs and setting legal restrictions on adolescent alcohol use.